It is clear from this definition that the current formulation of the provisions of the PTA in the WTO system is not only an exception to a trade principle (MFN), but rather runs counter to the fundamental principles of the organization and that the ptA rules appear to be superior to those of the WTO. It`s true; THE EDPs are a creation of the WTO, but the way they operate makes it comparable to the WTO and even almost superior. PTAs can now be considered “multiplied MCSEs” in different parts of the world. They sometimes take more restrictive measures than WTO rules. One of the most egregious examples is the more TRIPS measures taken in some bilateral agreements between developed and developing countries. Developed countries negotiate agreements with developing countries that are much more demanding in terms of intellectual property rights (IR) than the WTO TRIPS agreement. If the WTO does not address such situations, the TRIPS agreement could soon be replaced. It is important to act as quickly as possible on these issues, as the delay in the Doha round of multilateral negotiations plays a role in the dissemination of EPZs. With regard to trade regulation, trade liberalization and market access between countries are considered by many scientists to be a wto priority (Jackson, Reference Jackson2002). Bhagwati, reference Bhagwati2008).

Others question the idea of trade liberalization as an end in itself and consider the distribution of trade benefits and benefits for smaller members to be the overall objective of the WTO (Egger and Olarreaga, Reference Egger and Olarreaga2014); Wilkinson et al., Reference Wilkinson, Hannah und Scott2014). From a political point of view, the conditions of the WTO are not only the global environment, but also the internal political environment in which trade policy decisions are taken. Some consider that the WTO`s objective is to help governments withstand the pressure of the national political economy (Maggi and Rodriguez-Clare, Reference Maggi and Rodriguez-Clare 1998). Others oppose depoliticizing logic and want the WTO to provide a forum where “political actors unite and participate in debates” (Kapoor, Kapoor2004 reference: 525). Drawing on Robert Keohanes (Keohane2001 reference) The preconditions for the success of social institutions, John Jackson stresses the responsibility and closeness of governments with their constituents, “open participation to all” and “conviction in a thoughtful and non-controversial manner” as important ideals of international cooperation to which the WTO should aspire (Jackson, Jackson2002 reference: 105). Some scientists argue that this effect will eventually generate the political pressure needed to bring countries back to the multilateral negotiating table (Blanchard, Reference Blanchard2015). The question of how and to whom the rules of the PTA can be multilateralized will ultimately depend on the privileged outcomes of the negotiations and the context of the global political economy, which multilateralization is tempted to do. Many interviewees saw the global economy as a phase of change in the underlying balance of power and argued that the shape of the future trade regime will become clearer once adjustments have taken place. Others have speculated that the failure of preferential negotiations could bring the political momentum to bring countries back to the multilateral table. Online Research Documents General documents relating to regional trade agreements carry the WT/REG document code. As part of the Doha Agenda trade negotiations mandate, they use TN/RL/O (additional values needed). These links open a new window: Allow a moment for the results to appear.

Instead of viewing the number of institutional places as an indicator of institutional strength, the analysis is based on the distinction of European public political literature between a thick institutionalism in which institutions conceive of the understanding of political objectives and interests of political actors through formal and informal norms, norms of behaviour and principles of interacti.