All of our research and business analysis can be read free of charge online through the OECD iLibrary Trade Agreements and open many doors for businesses. With access to new markets, competition intensifies. Increasing competition is forcing companies to produce better quality products. It also leads to greater diversity for consumers. If there are a variety of high quality products, companies can improve customer satisfaction. The African Union is an organization of regional, social and economic cooperation. The site provides detailed information on all major economic cooperation programmes in Africa. Information includes participating countries, official documents, major events and press releases. November 2018 studies by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNCA) suggested that the implementation of the agreement would result in GDP growth of 1% and overall export growth of 3%. The greatest impact would be intra-African trade, which would reach more than 50% (and even more for some economies) depending on the ambition of liberalization. Provisions to be negotiated in the second stage, such as investment, competition and intellectual property rights, would further strengthen regional integration, Africa.To conclude that ATRs are likely to continue to increase in both numbers and coverage, while some aspects of RTA will continue to discriminate against third-party trade. They therefore remain the second best option compared to the multilateral rules that apply to all WTO members. However, some aspects of the ATR, particularly the rules, tend to be non-discriminatory and may therefore also be beneficial to non-RTA parties.

Policymakers benefit from a closer look at the impact of both types of provisions on global trade relations and international trade rules. Regional trade agreements depend on the level of commitment and agreement between member states. Today, ATRs are evolving in a way that goes beyond existing multilateral rules. The areas that cover them – investment, capital and people, competition and state-owned enterprises, e-commerce, anti-corruption and intellectual property rights – are key policy issues that need to be addressed in today`s more interconnected markets. Mega-regional initiatives are of a completely new scale and allow preferential access to Member States` markets by attempting to conclude 21st century trade agreements with deep and comprehensive market integration. The preferential trade agreement requires the least commitment to removing trade barriers Trade barriers are legal measures taken primarily to protect a country`s national economy. They generally reduce the amount of goods and services that can be imported. These barriers are put in place in the form of tariffs or taxes and, although Member States do not remove barriers between them. There are also no common trade barriers in preferential trade zones.

A common market is a kind of trade agreement in which members remove internal trade barriers, adopt common policies on relations with non-members and allow members to move their resources freely among themselves. However, while wto rules such as competition, the environment, labour, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and gender are not yet available, the potential for different rules for different trade relationships is rather a danger. However, even on these issues, for practical reasons, the parties to the ATR are more likely to be implemented by the parties to the ATR on a non-discriminatory basis.