In 2011, IBRD provided a loan of approximately $26 billion, which represented only “a fraction of the $72 billion approved by the IMF in the form of a single-nation credit line, Mexico.” [11] In the early 2010s, the total number of capital investments in emerging countries from all sources exceeded $1 trillion per year. [11] According to the Institute of International Finance, “combined net investments by the World Bank and other international banks and development agencies” amounted to about $20 billion in 2011. [11] According to a 2019 article in The Economist, IBRD is more “controversial” than the credit department of the International Development Association (IDA). With its AAA rating, IBRD can “borrow money cheaply on international financial markets.” [5] Middle-income countries, such as Brazil and China, which currently borrow money from the IBRD, could “borrow in abundance from foreign investors.” [5] After the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank`s mandate was extended to promote global economic development and eradicate poverty. The IUD provides sovereign states with commercial or granted financing for projects to improve transport and infrastructure, education, domestic policy, environmental awareness, energy investments, health care, access to food and clean water and access to improved sanitation. According to a 2015 article commissioned by the Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development – also known as the Group of 24 (G-24) – Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) – such as the IBRD – “represent one of the most successful types of international organizations created after World War II.” In October 2015, WBG, with its credit arms, was the only “global institution”,[14]:1 there were more than twenty operations of 20 billion billions. [17] In 2016, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Brics Development Bank began their activities. [17] Like other multilateral development banks (MDBs), the IBRD has preferential credit treatment (PCT) whereby borrowers give MDBs a “privileged position to be the first to repay if a country is subject to financial restrictions.” [17]:5 The bank also produces revenue from return on equity and low loan margins. As the IBRD is not for profit, it transfers a portion of its excess revenues to IDA ($259 million in fiscal 2019). [15] The IBRD is owned and governed by its 189 member states, with each country represented on the Governing Council. The IBRD has its own management and its employees who carry out their normal activities. The Bank`s member governments are shareholders who can contribute and vote on their affairs. In addition to the contributions of its member countries, the IBRD acquires most of its capital by borrowing most of its capital on international capital markets by issuing bonds at a preferential interest rate because of its AAA rating.

In the 1940s and 1950s, the Bank funded projects to condemn rivers, generate electricity and improve access to water and sanitation. It has also invested in France, Belgium and the Luxembourg steel industry. After the reconstruction of Europe, the Bank`s mandate extended to the eradication of poverty worldwide. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution based in Washington, D.C., united States, the lending arm of the World Bank Group.